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Missal of Cardinal Angelo Accialiuoli


Torelli, Matteo di Filippo; artist
Torelli, Bartolommeo di Filippo; artist
Fruosino, Bartolommeo; artist
Niccolò, Bastiano di; artist
; production


Viscount Fitzwilliam


illuminated manuscript


missal; type of text


circa 1404


early 15th Century


PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Parchment, ii paper flyleaves + ii medieval parchment flyleaves + 282 fols. (foliated i-x in modern pencil, I-CCLXXIIII in contemporary red ink, fols. 10, 118 and 203 excised) + i medieval parchment flyleaf + i paper flyleaf, 352 x 250 mm (216 x 157 mm), two columns, 32 lines, ruled in plummet, catchwords.

BINDING: Eighteenth century, gold-stamped brown leather over wooden boards, two leather straps (modern replacements) with metal clasps on upper cover, two catchplates (modern replacements) on lower cover, rebacked and repaired

fols. i recto-vi verso Calendar
fols. vii recto-x verso Office and vesting ceremonies for Pontifical Mass
fols. 1r-117r Temporal from the First Sunday of Advent to Holy Saturday (fol. 10 with the main Mass for Christmas Day has been excised)
fols. 117r-132v Ordinary of the Mass (fol. 118 with the opening of the Canon prayer, Te igitur, has been excised)
fols. 133r-180v Temporal from Easter Sunday to the Twenty-Fourth Sunday after Pentecost
fols. 180v-229v Sanctoral from the Vigil of St Andrew to the feast of St Saturninus (fol. 203 with the Mass for Saints Peter and Paul has been excised)
fols. 229v-252r Common of the Saints
fols. 252v-253v Mass for the Dedication of a Church
fols. 253v-268r Votive Masses including those of the Virgin Mary
fols. 268r-272v Masses for the Dead
fols. 273r-274r Ordo for the Blessing of Salt and Water and the Asperges

DECORATION: Sixty-six historiated initials, some with large acanthus extensions into the margin, often forming full borders (e.g. fols. 212r, 214r, 218r, 221v) or partial borders (e.g. fols. 75v, 144v, 155r, 181v, 222v), some of which contain busts of saints, putti, fantastic birds and flowers, in almost all cases for the Introit, but a few are for the Collect: fol. vii recto Office, [Q, 6 ll.] Priest standing before an altar; fol. 1r Advent Sunday, [A, 12 ll.] Christ blessing, with full border containing the kneeling figure of Angelo Acciaiuoli surmounted by a cardinal's hat with the Acciaiuoli arms; fol. 8r Christmas Eve, [H, 6 ll.] Saint holding a book; fol. 8v First Mass of Christmas, [D, 6 ll.] Flight into Egypt; fol. 9v Second Mass of Christmas, [L, 6 ll.] Annunciation to the Shepherds; fol. 11v St Stephen, [E, 6 ll.] St Stephen seated; fol. 12v St John the Evangelist, [C, 6 ll.] St John the Evangelist writing a book; fol. 13r Holy Innocents, [E, 6 ll.] Massacre of the Innocents; fol. 14r St Thomas of Canterbury, [G, 6 ll.] St Thomas of Canterbury with sword wounding his head; fol. 16r Circumcision, [P, 6 ll.] St Silvester (an artist’s error resulting from misplacing of the marginal instruction); fol. 16v Epiphany, [E, 10 ll.] Adoration of the Magi; fol. 71v Collect for Palm Sunday procession, [D, 4 ll.] Palm or olive branch; fol. 75v Palm Sunday, [D, 6 ll.] Entry into Jerusalem; fol. 76v Passion Reading for Palm Sunday, [ I, 4 ll.] St Matthew; fol. 81v Passion Reading for Tuesday of Holy Week, [I, 6 ll.] St Mark standing; fol. 86v Passion Reading for Wednesday of Holy Week, [I, 6 ll.] St Luke standing; fol. 90r Maundy Thursday, [N, 7 ll.] Last Supper; fol. 93r Reading from the prophet Hosea at the beginning of the Good Friday liturgy, [H, 6 ll.] Prophet Hosea; fol. 94r Passion Reading for Good Friday, [I, 7 ll.] St John standing; fol. 133r Easter Sunday, [R, 11 ll.] Resurrection; fol. 144v Ascension Day, [V, 8 ll.] Ascension; fol. 148r Pentecost Sunday, [S, 9 ll.] Pentecost, Peoples of the nations of the world, with full border containing the kneeling figure of Angelo Acciaiuoli surmounted by a cardinal's hat with the Acciaiuoli arms; fol. 148r Collect for Pentecost, [D, 4 ll.] Holy Spirit as a Dove; fol. 155r Trinity Sunday, [B, 8 ll.] Throne of Grace Trinity; fol. 156v Corpus Christi, [C, 8 ll.] Chalice on an altar with the paten and Host; fol. 180v Vigil of St Andrew, [D, 6 ll.] St Andrew; fol. 181v St Andrew, [M, 9 ll.] St Andrew seated holding a large cross; fol. 182v St Lucy, [D, 5 ll.] St Lucy; fol. 182v St Thomas Apostle, [M, 6 ll.] St Thomas; fol. 185v Conversion of St Paul, [S, 6 ll.], St Paul; fol. 188v Purification of the Virgin Mary, [S, 8 ll.] Presentation of the Christ Child in the Temple; fol. 191r St Matthias, [D, 5 ll.] St Matthias; fol. 192v Annunciation, [V, 8 ll.] Annunciation; fol. 193v St George, [P, 4 ll.] St George fighting the dragon; fol. 194r St Mark, [D, 6 ll.] St Mark writing in his study; fol. 194v Saints Philip and James, [6 ll.] Saints Philip and James standing; fol. 195r Invention of the Cross, [N, 6 ll.] Discovery of the Cross; fol. 196r St John at the Latin Gate, [D, 5 ll.] St John in the cauldron of boiling oil; fol. 198r St Barnabas, [D, 5 ll.] St Barnabas seated; fol. 200r Vigil of the Nativity of St John the Baptist, [N, 6 ll.] Annunciation to Zacharias, [N, 6 ll.]; fol. 201r Nativity of St John the Baptist, [D, 8 ll.] Birth of St John the Baptist, with full border containing the kneeling figure of Angelo Acciaiuoli surmounted by a cardinal's hat with the Acciaiuoli arms; fol. 201r Collect for St John the Baptist, [D, 4 ll.] The young St John the Baptist going into the desert; fol. 204v Commemoration of St Paul, [D, 7 ll.] Beheading of St Paul; fol. 207v St Mary Magdalen, [N, 4 ll.] St Mary Magdalen; fol. 208v St James, [E, 6 ll.] St James; fol. 209v St Peter's Chains, [N, 6 ll.] St Peter walking out of the prison; fol. 210v St Dominic, [D, 4 ll.] St Dominic; fol. 211v Vigil of St Laurence, [O, 5 ll.] St Laurence holding the gridiron; fol. 212r St Laurence, [C, 7 ll.] Martyrdom of St Laurence, with the Acciaiuoli arms in the border; fol. 214r Assumption, [G, 8 ll.] Assumption; fol. 215v St Bartolomew, [M, 7 ll.] St Bartholomew; fol. 218v Nativity of the Virgin, [S, 8 ll.] Birth of the Virgin; fol. 219v Exaltation of the Cross, [N, 8 ll.] Cross with Instruments of the Passion; fol. 221v St Matthew, [O, 7 ll.] St Matthew; fol. 222v St Michael, [B, 7 ll.] St Michael holding the scales of judgement; fol. 223v St Francis, [G, 6 ll.] St Francis holding a cross; fol. 225v Saints Simon and Jude, [M, 6 ll.] Two fish; fol. 226r All Saints, [G, 8 ll.] Virgin and Child surrounded by saints and angels; fol. 228r St Martin, [S, 6 ll.] St Martin; fol. 229v St Catherine, [D, 5 ll.] St Catherine; fol. 234r Common of Martyrs, [S, 7 ll.] Saint holding a palm; fol. 244r Common of Confessor Bishops, [s, 7 ll.] Bishop blessing; fol. 248v Common of Confessors, not Bishops, [O, 7 ll.] Saint praying; fol. 249v Common of Virgins, [D, 7 ll.] Female saint; fol. 252v Dedication of a Church, [T, 7 ll.] Bishop standing before the door of a church; fol. 254v Votive Mass of the Holy Cross, [N, 5 ll.] Cross with Crown of Thorns; fol. 268r Mass of the Dead, [R, 6 ll.] Skeleton with arms crossed in a tomb.

ORNAMENTATION: Acanthus initials [2-6 ll.] with foliate or ornamental infill (e.g. fols. 131v, 227r); red, blue or violet pen-flourished initials [2-5 ll.] with spray extensions into the borders (e.g. fols. 102r, 105r).

Place (legacy):

Italy, production, region
Florence, place


illumination; whole


parchment; support
gold; medium




bequeathed; 1816; Fitzwilliam, Richard, 7th Viscount


Made for Cardinal Angelo Acciaiuoli (d. 1409)


Fitzwilliam, Richard, 7th Viscount; previous owner
Acciaiuoli, Cardinal Angelo; original owner


This book is one of the most luxurious and profusely illustrated of all Italian Missals. In 1878 Milanesi discovered a document, since lost, which recorded that in 1404 a Missal was illuminated for Cardinal Angelo Acciaiuoli by the artists, Bartolommeo Fruosino, Bartolommeo and Matteo di Filippo Torelli, and Bastiano di Niccolò. In 1972 it was recognised that this book was Fitzwilliam Museum, MS 30. Since that date there has been much controversy as to which parts of the illumination can be attributed to Bartolommeo Fruosino and Matteo Torelli, who worked on several other manuscripts of the period c.1400-1425 (Boskovits 1972; Bellosi 1984). Bellosi noted similarities with some of the artists working on the decoration of the Codex Squarcialupi (Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, MS Mediceo Palatino 87), a book of Florentine music made in the early fifteenth century (Bellosi 1984; Gallo 1992), but decided subsequently that neither Fruosino nor Torelli worked on that book (Bellosi 1992). Unfortunately, the authors of the detailed earlier studies defining the work of these two artists were not aware of the dated Acciaiuoli Missal (Levi D'Ancona 1958; Levi D'Ancona 1961; Levi D'Ancona 1962b; Levi D'Ancona 1992). In 1991 Freuler related some of the work in the Missal to the artist of the 1403 Dante (Paris, BnF, MS ital. 73; Paris 1984, 72-3), attributed to Matteo Torelli, and an initial of St John the Baptist in Fra Lionardo Bonfredi, Regole per le suore del convento e ospedale San Niccolò di Firenze, formerly in the collection of Major Abbey (Alexander and de la Mare 1969, 23-5, pl. XIIIa) and now in Geneva (Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Fonds Comites Latentes, s.n.), which he considered to be by Matteo Torelli. It is uncertain whether the same artists did both the historiated initials and border decoration on an individual page in the Missal, and there are certainly differences throughout the book in both figure style and ornament. The complicated issue of dividing the hands and attributing initials to Fruosino and Torelli will not be attempted in this catalogue entry. In the late fourteenth century, Fruosino seems first to have been in the workshop of the fresco and panel painter Agnolo Gaddi, but developed his work mainly as an illuminator. In the final decade of the fourteenth century, these artists studied, together with Lorenzo Monaco, in the workshop of Don Simone Camaldolese and Don Silvestro Gherarducci at the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Florence. One of them is now defined as the Master of the Breslauer Epiphany (New York 1992-1993, 190-91; Boskovits 1995, 384; Parenti in Bollati 2004, 577) and is considered to be one of the artists of the Acciaiuoli Missal. The border decoration with large acanthus leaves populated by fantastic birds derives from Don Simone Camaldolese’s manuscripts, such as the Yale University Dante (New Haven, Beinecke Library, MS 428) and an Antiphoner leaf (New York, Brooklyn Museum, X 1015). This makes it certain that the style of the artists of the Acciaiuoli Missal originated from the Santa Maria degli Angeli school (New York 1994, 198-201, 206-207). Certain iconographic motifs are particular to this group of illuminators. A good example is the initial S for the Introit for Pentecost, Spiritus Domini replevit orbem terrarum, in which, below the scene of the Virgin and the apostles in the upper room receiving the Holy Spirit, the peoples of the world to whom the apostles will preach in tongues are standing outside the door of the building. This iconography may originate in the work of Don Silvestro dei Gherarducci and occurs in the single leaf (London, Victoria and Albert Museum, MS 3045) from one of the volumes of Graduals made in Florence c.1392-1399 for San Michele in Murano, Venice (New York 1994, 162, fig. 52). A possibly earlier example is in Florence, Santa Croce, cor. P, attributed to Giovanni del Biondo (Salmi 1954b, pl. XLVa). Later instances of this iconography occur in a leaf attributed to Lorenzo Monaco and datable to 1401-1402 (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Rossiana 1192.2; New York 1994, 241-3), in the 1409 Gradual from Santa Maria degli Angeli partly illuminated by Lorenzo Monaco (Florence, Biblioteca Laurenziana, Cor. 3; Levi D'Ancona 1994, fig. 68), and finally in an Antiphoner of c.1410-1415 illuminated by Bartolommeo Fruosino for Santa Maria Nuova in Florence (Florence, Museo Bargello, MS A.69; New York 1994, 243, fig. 94). Other iconographic peculiarities have a long tradition in Florence, such as the young St John the Baptist going into the desert, in the initial for the Collect for the feast of his Nativity, represented exactly as in the mosaics and on the bronze doors of the Baptistery. The image of the half-length skeleton with crossed arms in the tomb for the Mass of the Dead derives from the established type of the Man of Sorrows in Florentine art (La Favia 1980), using the same pose as that of Christ. The patron of the book, Cardinal Angelo Acciaiuoli, was a member of the great aristocratic Florentine Acciaiuoli family, the founders of the Charterhouse of Florence, where Angelo was buried beside other members of his family. At the time of the making of the Missal he was resident in Rome. The calendar and sanctoral are both of the use of Rome, without the special additions of the local saints, Minias (Miniato), Zenobius and Reparata, which are found in many Florentine liturgical books. Notes in Italian to the illuminator were written in the margins beside some of the historiated initials (fols. 16r, 16v, 71v, 75v, 86v, 226v, 228r, 234r).


secundo folio; mortuis neque de cruce


Illuminated Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Museum: An exhibition to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Death of the Founder, Richard, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion.. 1966 - 1966
Organiser: The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Cambs.), UK
Venue: The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Cambs.)
Catalogue number: 64

Splendours of Italian Illumination: Romanesque - Gothic - Renaissance. 1989 - 1990
Organiser: The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Cambs.), UK
Venue: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Notes: unpublished handlist of an exhibition held in the Adeane gallery, October 1989 - February 1990
Catalogue number: 18


Milanesi, G.. Vasari, Giorgio. 1878-1885. Le Vite de'Più Eccellenti Pittori, Scultori ed Architettori.Florence: p. 213-214

James, Montague Rhodes, Dr. 1895. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Museum.Cambridge (Cambs.): Cambridge University Pressp. 80 - 84

Frere, W. H.. 1894 - 1932. Bibliotheca Musico-Liturgica: A Descriptive Hand List of the Musical and Latin-liturgical MSS. Preserved in the Libraries of Great Britain and Ireland..London:
II, 165, no. 1012

Bollati, M.. 2004. Dizionario dei miniatori italiani.Milan:
Zambrelli in Bollati p. 64; Parenti in Bollati p. 577

Ghisalberti, Alberto M.. 1960. Dizionario biografico degli Italiani.Rome: p. 6, 720

Meissner, Gunter. 1992. Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon.Munich:
VII, p. 285

Levi D'Ancona, M.. 2003. I corali dell'Ospedale di Santa Maria Nuova.Pistoia: p. 101

Freuler, G.. 1991. "Manifestatori delle cose miracolose": Arte italiana del '300 e '400 da collezioni in Svizzera e nel Liechtenstein.Lugano:
pp. 211-13, fig. 1

Freuler, G.. 1997. Tendencies of the Gothic in Florence: Don Silvestro dei Gherarducci.Florence:
Source Title: A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting, sec. 4 7 part 2 ()

p. 475 N.4

Levi D'Ancona, M.. 1962. Jacopo del Giallo e alcune miniature del Correr.
Source Title: Bollettino dei Musei Civici Veneziani 7 (2) (1962) : 1-23

pp. 42, 44, 51, 186

Boskovits, M.. 1995. Mostre di miniatura italiana a New York I.
Source Title: Arte Cristiana 83 770 ()

p. 384, fig. 9

Boskovits, M.. 1972. Su Don Silvestro, Don Simone e la Scuola degli Angeli.
Source Title: Paragone (Arte) 265 () : 35-61

p. 45, figs. 33, 34

Labriola, A.. 1998. Per Don Simone Camaldolese.
Source Title: Arte Cristiana 87 () : 189-202

pp. 196, 202 n. 50

Bellosi, Luciano. 1984. Due note in margine a Lorenzo Monaco miniatore: il "Maestro del codice Squarcialupi" e il poco probabile Matteo Torelli.Naples:
Source Title: Scritti di Storia dell'Arte in memoria di Mario Rotili() : 307-314

p. 314 n. 32


Object Number: MS 30
(Manuscripts and Printed Books)
(record id: 176358; input: 2010-04-12; modified: 2016-08-18)


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