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Title:

Bible

Maker(s) &
Production:

Masters of Zweder van Culemborg, production, Northern Netherlands, Utrecht

Category:

illuminated manuscript

Name:

bible; type of text

Date:

circa 1420 1430

Period:

fifteenth century

Description:

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Parchment, 462 fols. (modern pencil foliation 1 – 100, 100a, 102 – 461); 217 x 162 (134 x 96) mm, ruled in pink ink, 2 columns, 29 lines, running headers, quire signatures, catchwords.

BINDING: fifteenth century, doeskin chemise, red leather (replacement of 1987) over wooden boards, five metal bosses on upper cover, four out of original five metal bosses on lower cover, two catchplates on upper cover, slits in chemise and remains of leather straps on lower cover, traces of label on upper cover, arms of Lochorst held by angel painted on all three edges; repaired and rebound by the Cockerell bindery in 1987

CONTENTS: fol. 1r – v Contemporary list of contents in red ink; fols. 2r – 66v Bible, Macc I – II, with prologues; fols. 67r – 336v New Testament; fols. 338r – 460r Interpretation of Hebrew names.

DECORATION: Twenty-three framed column miniatures and 28 historiated initials, often related in subject-matter, with full or partial foliate bar borders and/or floral, acanthus and spraywork borders for books and prologues: fol. 5r I Macc, Alexander the Great on his deathbed divides his kingdom among his barons; fol. 39v Capitula to II Macc, Battle scene, standard of the victorious army displaying Lochorst arms (erased); fol. 42r II Macc, High Priest praying at altar; fol. 67r Prologue to Matt, [M, 8 ll.] St Matthew writing at desk, angel holding inkhorn; fol. 67v Matt, [L, 8 ll.] Tree of Jesse; fol. 101r Prologue to Mark, St Mark writing at desk, lion beside him; fol. 122v Luke, St Luke censing altar, ox at his feet and [F, 8 ll.] St Luke reading; fol. 159v Prologue to John, [H, 8 ll.] St John writing, using eagle as lectern; fol. 160v John, St John reading, using eagle with scroll as footstool; fol. 188r Prologue to Acts, [L, 6 ll.] St Luke writing at lectern, ox on ground; fol. 188v Acts, Ascension; fol. 189r Acts, [P, 9 ll.] St Peter with key and book; fol. 225v Apoc, St John seated before church, holding scroll and inkhorn; fol. 242v Prologue to Epistles, [N, 6 ll.] Cleric kneeling in prayer at lectern with open book; fol. 243r James, Christ holding orb speaking to St James represented as pilgrim; fol. 247r I Pet, [P, 9 ll.] St Peter with key; fol. 250v II Pet, [S, 8 ll.] St Peter with key; fol. 253r I John, St John writing at desk, messenger with spear beside him and [Q, 8 ll.] Eagle with scroll; fol. 256v II John, [S, 6 ll.] St John blessing cup with serpent; fol. 257r III John, [S, 7 ll.] St John holding cup with serpent; fol. 258r Jude, [I, 13 ll.] St Jude holding saw; fol. 259r Rom, St Paul with sword looking at kneeling messenger with spear, [R, 7 ll.] Angel praying, and [P, 8 ll.] Angel seated in meditation, in border monkey in a foxglove looking at its face in a mirror; fol. 273v Prologue to I Cor, [C, 4 ll.] bust of man and I Cor, St Paul seated at desk conversing with messenger; fol. 274r I Cor, [P, 8 ll.] St Paul reading; fol. 287v II Cor argument, [P, 7 ll.] Angel praying and II Cor, Messenger bringing letter to St Paul; fol. 296v Gal, [G, 7 ll.] Man pointing up; fol. 297r Gal, St Paul writing at desk, messenger holding on to chair; fol. 301v Eph, St Paul handing sword to messenger; fol. 306r Phil, St Paul receiving news from messenger and [P, 6 ll.] St Paul holding sword and book; fol. 309r Col, [C, 5 ll.] Angel playing flute; fol. 309v Col, St Paul with sword conversing with man; fol. 312v I Thess, St Paul receiving letter from messenger and [T, 7 ll.] Angel playing lute; fol. 315v II Thess, St Paul reading at desk and receiving letter from messenger; fol. 317r I Tim, [T, 6 ll.] Timothy as bishop, bear playing flute in border; fol. 317v I Tim, St Paul writing, book at his feet, and looking up at Timothy; fol. 321r II Tim, St Paul with book receiving letter from messenger; fol. 323v Tit, St Paul writing, messenger holding spear; fol. 325r Philemon, [P, 5 ll.] St Paul with book and sword; fol. 325v Philemon, St Paul writing, messenger on left, landscape behind curtain; fol. 326v Heb, St Paul with book and sword, kneeling messenger; fol. 360v Interpretation of Hebrew names, [B, 5 ll.] Bust of old man praying; fol. 370r Interpretation of Hebrew names, [C, 5 ll.] Bust of man praying; fol. 412r Interpretation of Hebrew names, [L, 5 ll.] Bust of man; fol. 452r Interpretation of Hebrew names, [T, 5 ll.] Bust of man.

ORNAMENTATION: Blue or pink white-patterned initials [4 – 8 ll.] with foliate infill on gold grounds for some biblical books and prologues; blue initials [1 – 10 ll.] with red pen-flourished infill and extensions, and occasional voided ornament (fol. 326r); capitals highlighted in red.

Technique(s):

illumination; whole
penwork

Material(s):

parchment; support
gold; medium

Dimension(s):

height, page, 217, mm
width, page, 162, mm
height, text, 134, mm
width, text, 96, mm

Acquisition:

bequeathed; 1917; Dewick, Rev. E.S.

Provenance:

made for a member of the prominent Utrecht family of Lochorst (arms on edges); given by Sarah and Robert Wight to Maria Mathews in 1866, and by her to her sister Ann Byam Wight in 1871 (inscriptions on paper inserts formerly in MS 289.I, now kept on file); Rev. E.S. Dewick (1844 – 1917); his bequest, 1917.

Associated
Person(s):

Dewick, Rev. E.S.; previous owner
Wight, Ann Byam; previous owner
Mathews, Maria; previous owner
Wight, Sarah and Robert; previous owner
Lochorst family of Utrecht; original owner

Notes:

The Bible was probably made for Gijsbrecht van Lochorst (c.1380 – 1454), canon of Oudmunster and of Utrecht Cathedral, or for his brother, Herman I van Lochorst (c.1365 – 1438), canon of Oudmunster and dean of Utrecht Cathedral. It was illuminated in two distinct styles. The Masters of Zweder van Culemborg, one of the leading groups of artists active in Utrecht c.1415 – 1445 and named after a Missal they illuminated c.1425 for Zweder van Culemborg, Bishop-elect of Utrecht (Bressanone, Seminario Maggiore, MS C.20), painted fols. 5r, 39v, 42r, 259r, 273v, 321r. The remaining decoration is by a more traditional group of artists whose work has not been identified in other Dutch manuscripts as yet (Marrow in Cambridge 2005, no. 34).

Inscription:

secundo folio; fol. 3r; [ex]pugnavit filios

Exhibition(s):

Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts. 1908 - 1908
Organiser: Burlington Fine Arts Club, London, Britain
Venue: Burlington House, London?
Catalogue number: 146

The Cambridge Illuminations: Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West. 2005 - 2005
Organiser: Fitzwilliam Museum and Cambridge University Library
Venue: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Catalogue number: 34

Illuminated Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Museum: An Exhibition to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the Death of the Founder, Richard, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion. 1966 - 1966
Organiser: The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Cambs.), UK
Venue: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Catalogue number: 80

Documentation:

Hoogewerff, G. J.. 1936 - 37. De Noord-Nederlandsche schilderkunst.The Hague:
pp. 173, 421 – 27, 433, 434, figs. 215 – 18

Burlington Fine Arts Club. 1908. Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts.
no. 146

Wormald, F.. Giles, P.M.. 1982. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Additional Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Musuem Acquired between 1895-1979 (excluding the McClean Collection).England: Cambridge University Press
pp. 258 – 65, figs. 56 – 61

Panofsky, E.. 1953. Early Netherlandish Painting.Cambridge, Mass:
pp. 97 – 8, 101 n. 21

Byvanck, A. W.. Hoogewerff, G. J.. 1922 - 1926. La miniature hollandaise dans les manuscrits des 14e, 15e et 16e siècles.The Hague:
p. no. 25, pls. 106 – 108, 125 – 26, 143

Byvanck, A. W.. 1937. La miniature dans les Pays-Bas Septentrionaux.Colmar, Paris:
pp. 47 – 51, 126, figs. 79 – 88

De Wit, C.. 1927. Die Utrechtschen Miniaturen des 15. Jahrhunderts.Munich:
pp. 71 – 2, 98 – 103, 113

Byvanck, A. W.. 1943. De Middeleeuwse Boekillustratie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden.Antwerp:
pp. 25 – 7, figs. 13 – 16

Wormald, F.. Giles, P. M.. 1966. Illuminated Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Museum: An Exhibition to Commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the Death of the Founder, Richard, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion.Cambridge (Cambs.):
no. 80

Binski, P.. Panayotova, S. 2005. The Cambridge Illuminations: Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West.London:
no. 34

Hindman, S.. D'Ancona, M. L.. Palladino, P.. Saffiotti, M. F.. 1997. The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol. IV: Illuminations.New York: p. 58

Lane, Barbara G.. 1973. An Immaculist Cycle in the Hours of Catherine of Cleves.
Source Title: Oud Holland 87 NR. 4 (1973) : 177-204

p. 186, fig. 16

Finke, Ulrich. 1963. Utrecht - Zentrum Nordniederlandischer Buchmalerei: Seine Bedeutung in der Ersten Halfte des 15. Jahrhunderts.Netherlands:
Source Title: Oud Holland 78 () : 27 - 66

Gorissen, F. 1973. Das Stundenbuch der Katharina von Doornik.
Source Title: Numaga 20() : 45 - 68

pp. 602, 658, 793, 801, 806 – 808, 824 – 25, 827 – 29, 963

De Wit, C.. 1929. Uit de Geschiedenis der Utrechtsche Miniaturen.
Source Title: Oudheidkundig Jaarboek ser. 3 8 (1929) : 272 - 77

p. 276, fig. 3

Byvanck, A. W.. 1923. Utrechtsche miniaturen.
Source Title: Het Gildeboek 6 (1923) : see remarks
p. 187

De Wit, C.. 1929. Het Atelier der Utrechtsche Miniaturen en een Kapittel uit de Gescheidenis van het Karthuizerklooster Nieuw-Licht.
Source Title: Oudheidkundig Jaarboek Ser. 3 vol. 8 (1929) : 264-71
p. 266

Holter, K.. 1938. Eine Wiener Handschrift aus der Werkstatt des Meisters des Zwede.
Source Title: Oudheidkundig Jaarboek ser. 4 7 (1938) : 55-59
p. 56 - 9

Hoogewerff, G.J.. 1961. Gelderse Miniatuurschilders in de Eerste Helft van de XVde Eeuw.
Source Title: Oud Holland 76 (1961) : 3-49

Marrow, J.H.. 1968. Dutch Manuscript Illumination before the Master of Catherine of Cleves: The Master of the Morgan Infancy Cycle.
Source Title: Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 19 () : 51-113

p. 55 n. 14

Pächt, O. and Jenni, U.. 1975. Hollandische Schule..Vienna:
Source Title: Die illuminierten Handschriften und Inkunabeln der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek 3 ()

pp. 13, 16 – 7, 19 – 22, 65, 75, figs. 13 – 14, 16 – 18, 20 – 21

Hindman, S.. 1977. Text and Image in Fifteenth-Century Illustrated Dutch Bibles.Leiden:
Source Title: Verzameling van Middelnederlandse Bijbelteksten, Miscellanea 1 (1977)

pp. 41, 42 n. 24, 46 – 7, 48, 63, figs. 5, 9

Hamburger, J.. 1987-1988. The Casanatense Missal and Painting in Guelders in the Early Fifteenth Century.
Source Title: Wallraf Richartz Jahrbuch 48/49 ()

pp. 16, 18, fig. 12

Calkins, R.G.. Van der Horst, K.. J.-C. Klamt. 1991. The Question of the Origins of the Master of Catherine of Cleves.Doornspijk:
Source Title: Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989)(10-13-December-1989) : 327 - 334

p. 328, fig. 2

Hamburger, J.. Van der Horst, K.. Klamt, J.-C.. 1991. The Casanatense and the Carmelite Missals: Continental Sources for English Manuscript Illumination of the Early 15th Century.Doornspijk:
Source Title: Masters and Miniatures: Proceedings of the Congress on Medieval Manuscript Illumination in the Northern Netherlands (Utrecht, 10-13 December 1989)(10-13-December-1989) : 161-173
p. 164 - 65

Accession:

Object Number: MS 289.III
(Manuscripts and Printed Books)
(record id: 170622; input: 2010-01-14; modified: 2012-08-23)

Permanent
Identifier:

http://data.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/id/object/170622





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