workshop of Nardon Penicaud, maker, Haute Vienne, Limoges
Penicaud, Nardon, maker, Limoges enameller, 1470-1542/43
Schongauer, Martin, printmaker, after, German artist, c.1440/53-1491
This Flagellation and its companion plaque of the Crowning of Christ with Thorns (M.9-1938) probably formed the left and right wings of a triptych with the Crucifixion in the centre, as these subjects do on an example in the Museo Sacro Vaticano. The figures and garment in the foreground were derived from a print in a series of twelve illustrating the Passion of Christ by Martin Schongauer (c. 1441-1491), or from a copy after it. (See Documentation, Bartsch and Hollstein). The architectural setting was omitted, and the figures were depicted in more static and less muscular style. The man at the front of the group on the right follows the print in having his feet and legs facing away from the viewer, but the enameller has created a torso and head facing the viewer.
The plaque was attributed to the workshop of Nardon Penicaud on its accession. Marquet de Vasselot attributed the triptych in the Museo Sacro Vaticano to him, but the costume and style of the figures on this plaque suggest that it is later in date, and it might therefore have been the work of either Nardon or his younger brother Jean. There is very little deterioration of the blues and manganese-purples, which suggests that it was made later than the Deposition (MAR.M.250-1912) which has considerable degrading of the manganese-purples, probably in the late 1520s. Unfortunately the colour of the counter-enamel is concealed by the frame.
Leonard D. Cunliffe
Limoges painted enamels; category
circa 1520 1530
first quarter of 16th century
copper decorated with polychrome enamels, jewelling, and gilding. The Flagellation of Christ by a group of tormentors. Above the architectural background a pair of putti hold up a shield bearing the initials IHS
Rectangular copper plaque with drawing in black over a white ground covered with translucent blue, turquoise, green, tan, and mulberry enamels, opaque red, white, and black enamels; blue, red, and green enamel jewelling over presumed silver foils, and gilding. The counter enamel is not visible because of the frame. Christ stands in the centre tied with his arms behind his back to a mulberry column. He is naked except for a white loin cloth and his arms, torso and legs are covered with horizontal lines of drops of blood. His mulberry-coloured cloak lies in the foreground on greensward scattered with numerous flowers with red and green jewelled centres and white dotted petals. Two men on the right and one on the left stand with their arms raised holding bunches of green twigs with which they are about to strike Christ. Another man kneels on the left holding a snaking cord in his right hand and a crown of thorns in his left. The head of another is visible behind the column. Above the figures there is a black drape bordered by a curved line of red, blue and green jewels with white dotted edges. Above it, two fluted arches with jewelled edges spring from the green capital of the column. In the spandrel between them is a green mask, and a blue shield bearing the mnogram IHS in gothic letters, held up by two putti who lie horizontally on the top of the arches. Remnants of lavish gilding are visible on the figures and arches. The narrow gilt-metal inner frame has eighteen flower headed rivets. The outer frame of the stand is covered in very worn crimson velvet and is backed by crimson damask with a hinged prop in the middle.
drawing; decoration; black
enamelling; decoration; translucent blue, turquoise, green, tan, and mulberry enamels, opaque red, white, and black
silver; foils; probably
enamel; decoration; translucent blue, turquoise, green, tan, and mulberry opaque red, white, and black
rectangular copper plaque, almost flat, with drawing in black over a white ground covered with translucent blue, turquoise, green, tan, and mulberry enamels, opaque red, white, and black enamels, blue, red, and green enamel jewelling over foils, and gilding. The counter enamel is not visible.
height, plaque, 28.5, cm, approximately
width, plaque, 11.5, cm, approximatey
height, inner frame, 30.8, cm
width, inner frame, 14, cm
height, outer frame, 34, cm
width, outer frame, 17.5, cm
bequeathed; 1937; Cunliffe, Leonard D.
Sir Francis Cook Bart. (1817-1901); Humphrey Wyndham Cook; sold Christie’s, 7-10 July 1925, Catalogue of an important collection of objects of art of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the property of Humphrey W. Cook, Esq., and removed from 8 Cadogan Square, S.W., Being a portion of the Celebrated Collection formed by the late Sir Francis Cook, Bart., 2nd Day, 8 July, p. 47, first part of lot 205, described as framed but illustrated unframed; L.D. Cunliffe.
Cook, Francis; former owner; Sir Francis Cook, Bart.
A photograph in the Victoria and Albert Museum Ceramic Department shows this plaque with M.9-1938 without the red velvet frame now round each of them, as did the illustration in the Cooke Sale catalogue.
L.D. Cunliffe Bequest, 1937
inscription; on blue shield in spandrel between arches; painted in gold; IHS; in gothic letters; abbreviation for Jesus Christ in Greek
inventory number; B39; number in L.D. Cunliffe's inventory
Sotheby's. 1996. European Sculpture and Works of Art from the collection formed by the British Rail Pension Fund.London: p. 97-9
Cf. pp. 97-9, lot 50, a plaque of the same subject, probably later in date in a set of twelve plaques illustrating the Passion of Christ. The writer notes the existence of only one plaque signed and dated by Nardon Penicaud, the Crucifixion in the Musée de Cluny, Paris, which is dated 1 April 1503 (1504 NS) and that it is therefore difficult to attribute enamels specifically to him as opposed to by him and his workshop. The writer also notes that his younger brother, Jean I Penicaud, had a very similar style.
Hutchison, Jane C.. 1980. The Illustrated Bartsch, 8, Formerly Volume 6 (Part 1), Early German Artists.New York: p. 225
Cf. p. 225, 12 (125) a print of the Flagellation or Scourging of Christ n by Martin Schongauer
Schmitt, Lothar. 1999. Hollstein’s German Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts 1400-1700, vol. XLIX.Rotterdam: p. 62
Cf. p. 62, illustrated p. 76, the Flagellation or Scourging of Christ
Stohlman, F.. 1939. Gli smalti del Museo Sacro Vaticano.Vatican City: p. 50
Cf. p. 50, S 111 (2218), and pl. XXVII, a triptych with wings of the Flagellation and Crowning with Thorns. The iconography of the Flagellation differs considerably from the Fitzwilliam’s.
M.9-1938; The Crowning of Christ with Thorns
Object Number: M.8-1938
(record id: 139848; input: 2007-08-31; modified: 2012-10-24)