Rapicano, Cola; artist
book of hours; type of text
use of Rome; liturgical use
circa 1460 circa 1470
fifteenth century, third quarter
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Parchment, iv parchment flyleaves (the first glued to red silk) + 217 fols. + iv parchment flyleaves (the last glued to red silk), 152 x 105 mm (81 x 53 mm), 15 long lines, ruled in black ink, catchwords, leaf lost between fols. 12 and 13, fol. 89 mis-bound
BINDING: Early nineteenth century, blue velvet over wooden boards, insides of boards lined with magenta silk, two silver clasps with niello decoration on red enamel ground on lower cover, the upper one showing the Virgin and Child, the lower St John blessing the poisoned cup, two catchplates on upper cover, edges gilt, by the French Royal Binder Capé.
fols. 1r–12v Calendar
fols. 13r–88r Hours of the Virgin (begins imperfectly)
fol. 89r–89v Miniature of St John the Baptist on recto and suffrage of St Peter on verso (mis-bound)
fols. 90r–96v Mass of the Virgin
fols. 97r–120r Penitential Psalms and Litany
fols. 123r–171v Office of the Dead
fols. 173r–197v Hours of the Passion
fols. 199r–206v Short Hours of the Cross
fols. 207r–208v Suffrages of St John the Baptist and St Jerome
fols. 209r–210r Prayers to Christ, O domine Ihesu Christe adoro te
fols. 210r–211r Rubricated Indulgences of Popes Gregory IX, Nicholas V, Calixtus III and Pius II
fols. 211v–215r Prayer Domine Deus sabbaoth deus adonay
fols. 215r–216v Prayer Iuste iudex Ihesu Christe rex regum
DECORATION: Three full-page framed miniatures with full, framed floral borders including animals, birds, hybrids and putti for Suffrages: fol. 89r St John the Baptist holding gold cross and standing in landscape, peacock in border; fol. 207r St Francis receiving the Stigmata, brother Leo reading; fol. 208r St Anthony Abbot standing and reading, staff with bell leaning on his shoulder, fire in border.
Eleven half-page framed miniatures with full, framed floral borders including animals, birds, hybrids and putti for major text divisions: fol. 90r Mass of the Virgin, Virgin and Child with musical angels; fol. 97r Penitential Psalms, David penitent in the wilderness, an over-painted shield of arms (azure a fes or, a chief vert with leaved pomegranate or rose) supported by two putti in lower border; fol. 123r Office of the Dead, Death as a crowned skeleton riding a black horse and striking with scythe at a pope, a bishop, a king and a queen, an over-painted shield of arms (azure with branch-pattern or) supported by two putti in lower border; fol. 173r Hours of the Passion, Matins, Betrayal; fol. 177r Prime, Christ before Pilate; fol. 180r Terce, Flagellation; fol. 183r Sext, Carrying of the Cross; fol. 186r None, Crucifixion with the Virgin, St John, Jews and two Holy Women, St Mary Magdalene embracing the Cross; fol. 189r Vespers, Deposition, with peacock in border; fol. 193v Compline, Entombment; fol. 199r Hours of the Cross, Matins, Adoration of the True Cross by St Helena, Constantine, a nimbed bare-footed old man (probably Judas Quiriacus), and kneeling congregation.
Eight historiated initials in graded blue or magenta, with acanthus extensions on gold grounds, enclosing busts of prophets, and surrounded by full, framed floral borders including animals, birds, hybrids and putti: fol. 23r Hours of the Virgin, Lauds, [D, 6 ll.]; fol. 34v Prime, [D, 6 ll.]; fol. 38v Terce, [D, 6 ll.]; fol. 43v Sext, [D, 5 ll.]; fol. 46v None, [D, 5 ll.]; fol. 51r Vespers, [D, 5 ll.]; fol. 58v Compline, [C, 6 ll.]; fol. 209r Rubricated Indulgences of Popes Gregory IX, Nicholas V, Calixtus III and Pius II, [D, 6 l.] Pope in prayer.
ORNAMENTATION: Graded blue initials [4 ll.] with floral infill on gold grounds, occasionally including human heads and extending into marginal spraywork with gold leaves and balls; gold initials [2–3 ll.] on blue, magenta and green grounds with white foliate patterns; alternate blue and gold one-line initials with red or violet pen flourishing.
Italy, production, region
bequeathed; 1904; McClean, Frank
The name of the original owner, possibly Albanus (James 1912a, 144), has been erased from the text of the prayer on fol. 212r; over-painted shields of arms on fols. 97r and 199r; manuscript copy of an entry in a sale catalogue pasted inside upper cover; Frank McClean (1837–1904); his bequest, 1904.
McClean, Frank; previous owner
The Calendar contains almost all of the bishops of Naples (Quodvultdeus, 19 Feb.; Silverius, 30 Apr.; Euframius, 23 May 23; Athanasius 15 July; Aspren, 3 Aug.; Januarius, 19 Sept.; Agrippinus, 9 Nov.; Anellus, 14 Dec. 14) as well as two female saints venerated in Naples, Restituta (17 May) and Candida (4 Sept.), both of whom are also included among the Virgins in the Litany. The illumination confirms the Neapolitan origin of the manuscript. The rich ornamentation of the stylized floral and spraywork borders, the stiff and schematic movements of figures, birds and animals, and the facial types and hair styles of the putti and the saints in the full-page miniatures can be attributed to Cola Rapicano (doc. 1451-1488), the head of the prolific workshop which served largely Alfonso the Magnanimous, King of Naples (1442-1458), his son, King Ferrante (1458-1494), their relatives and courtiers (Toscano in Naples and Valencia 1998, 385-415; Toscano in Bollati 2004, 893-96). A different Neapolitan artist painted the half-page miniatures for the Mass of the Virgin and the Hours of the Passion. The missing leaf between fols. 12 and 13 would have accommodated the opening image for the Hours of the Virgin. Fol. 89 with the miniature of St John the Baptist is mis-bound; originally, it would have faced fol. 207v which contains the saint’s suffrage. The volume would have contained suffrages to St Francis and St Anthony Abbot, judging from the full-page miniatures, and miniatures now lost would have accompanied the suffrages to St Peter and St Jerome.
secundo folio; fol. 14r; [tempta]verunt me patres vestri
Splendours of Italian Illumination: Romanesque - Gothic - Renaissance. 1989 - 1990
Organiser: The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Cambs.), UK
Venue: The Fitzwilliam Museum
Notes: unpublished handlist of an exhibition held in the Adeane gallery, October 1989 - February 1990
Catalogue number: 103
James, Montague Rhodes, Dr. 1912. A descriptive catalogue of the McClean Collection of Manuscripts in the Fitzwilliam Museum.Cambridge (Cambs.): Cambridge University Press
pp. 142-45, pl. XLVI.71 (fol. 189r)
Object Number: MS McClean 71
(Manuscripts and Printed Books)
(record id: 118778; input: 2005-05-31; modified: 2015-07-24)